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01-2021

As the year came to a close I finished reading Kate Soper’s Post-Growth Living, an argument retooling consumer society which is correct in its aspirations though I am not optimistic that those aspirations can be achieved. I began reading The Second Sex, by Simone de Beauvoir. I have been interested in the situation of women in photography, women as subject, women as photographers, women as curators and critics. I find the Second Sex is grounding me in the gender social issues swirling around the participation and representation of women in photographic enterprise. The Republican party seems to be on track to oppose the certification of the election, though they don’t have the numbers to prevail. The photography of Rebecca Norris Webb caught my attention.

January 01, 2021 2601 Beacon, NY

01-02-21

229.4 lbs

08:18 AM – Madame Brett Park

… as i walk i consider the difference in the image of mountain and the image of ouroboros, that i am less about climbing mountains and more about tail devouring, where life is cyclical, not about the need to exceed one’s self daily, which only leads to disappointment because all life is the tail devouring snake, arising, being, then subsumed… the simple pleasures approach to life understands this…

05:38 AM – my studio

… 45 insanity continues, 140 republican members of the house intend to vote against electoral votes, an attempt to overthrow the will of the people, a ploy to retain the Trumpublicans for future political ambition, HCR pointing out, gerrymandering protects Republican office holders from moderate Democrat challengers but not from extreme challengers from within, another reason gerrymandering needs to be addressed as a problem… this from De Beauvoir:

This world has always belonged to males, and none of the reasons given for this have ever seemed sufficient.1

… my immediate thought, true, but don’t women have a kind of soft power, didn’t women tame the west, or were at least a significant factor in its taming?… hasn’t the problem been that male power is maintained and deployed in an unjust manner, political and legal oppression of the soft power…

Homo faber has been an inventor since the beginning of time: even the stick or the club he armed himself with to knock down fruit from a tree or to slaughter animals is an instrument that expands his grasp of the world; bringing home freshly caught fish is not enough for him: he first has to conquer the seas by constructing dugout canoes; to appropriate the world’s treasures, he annexes the world itself. Through such actions he tests his own power; he posits ends and projects paths to them: he realizes himself as existent. To maintain himself, he creates; he spills over the present and opens up the future. This is the reason fishing and hunting expeditions have a sacred quality. Their success is greeted by celebration and triumph; man recognizes his humanity in them. This pride is still apparent today when he builds a dam, a skyscraper, or an atomic reactor. He has not only worked to preserve the given world: he has burst its borders; he has laid the ground for a new future.2

… is this the reason that market capitalism and the endless growth paradigm is with us?, because there is an imperative for the human species to keep exceeding itself, because men need to possess the world in order to create themselves within it?, and because they have the advantage of strength without the disadvantage of menstrual cycles, fertility and child care, they assume the mantel of the human need to keep pushing, keep exceeding itself?… and this:

The worst curse on woman is her exclusion from warrior expeditions; it is not in giving life but in risking his life that man raises himself above the animal; this is why throughout humanity, superiority has been granted not to the sex that gives birth but to the one that kills.3

… this last quote highlighted by 461 readers in Kindle… the above is changing, women are more often inthe ranks of warriors now, in the military, on the front lines of battle, we live now in a situation where the norm is not hand to hand combat, but combat with tools that kill at a distance, either in time or in space… so the male advantage is lost and the female can bring her skills to bear on the tools at hand… there are more and more frequent instances of story telling that assign warrior roles to women, Bobbi in The Expanse for example…

With an animal, the gratuitousness and variety of male activities are useless because no project is involved; what it does is worthless when it is not serving the species; but in serving the species, the human male shapes the face of the earth, creates new instruments, invents and forges the future.4

… we are engaged in a struggle to stop the patriarchy from raping the planet, we are in a struggle to stop the patriarchy, from the enterprise of constantly exceeding themselves, this is the difficulty of the situation we find ourselves in, the planet is being raped past the point of endurance, past the point of being able to carry on life, by a life force with the primal directive to keep surpassing itself… there can be no good end to this unless technology manages extraordinary feats in ever shorter periods of time… Kate Soper argues against the idea that there will be technological salvation, and for the idea that we must get used to a situation where we do not continuously exceed ourselves, where the simple pleasures are the norm of human expectations… Soper points to spiritual fulfillment through and in the “simple pleasures” of life, if we slow down and embrace them… this pointed out again and again by great thinkers of all kinds, with very little impact on the broad behavior of constant growth, constant exceeding…

… i remain ambivalent to the idea that sacred elevation of the simple pleasures is an answer, i remain suspicious that technological evolution will evolve solutions, unless they move beyond the human being as is, and create intelligent beings that may be part human, part alternative life, or entirely alternative live… in The Phenomenon of Man, Tielhard de Chardin argues the progress of mind to an omega point, the entire planet becomes a point of intelligence… Ken Wilbur argues this that intelligence and complexity of life has been on the rise, with each latter stage subsuming the previous stages in a way that is both sovereign over and dependent on those stages… on the other hand, we have Herman Melville arguing the simple pleasures are the attainable felicity to be had, that the attempt to conquer nature is futile and ends in disaster…

I have perceived that in all cases man must eventually lower, or at least shift, his conceit of attainable felicity; not placing it anywhere in the intellect of the fancy; but in the wife, the heart, the bed, the table, the saddle, the fire-side, the country.5

… i encounter the work of Rebecca Norris Webb and her husband(?) Alex Webb, which arrests me in it’s beautiful compositions, it’s simple rendering of emotion, memory, appreciation… this image beguiles me:

© Rebecca Noris Webb
© Rebecca Norris Webb

01-01-21

229.8 lbs

05:56 AM – my studio

… happy new year!, hoping it will be much better than the previous year, though there will be more shit to go through for sure… pleased to have not gained much weight, our Mexican feast was not overwhelmingly calorific, but there was wine and desert too… H thinks we should have N95 masks, after researching a bit i ordered KN95 masks which are manufactured to Chinese standards, but this one is reviewed and approved by FDA, 60 of them for about one dollar a piece, we will use them when we go inside stores…

… Simone de Beauvoir, who is recounting, in a very cursory fashion, Engles’ views on the evolution of the patriarchy which, she argues, is tied to property ownership and the advent of labor methods required to “work” the property, as property ownership arises, the patriarchy arises, built around property ownership and exploitation (also the means of production)… de Beauvoir arguing that Engles offers insufficient support for the transition to property ownership, that there must be something inherent in nature/human nature that allows for it, brings it about…

A truly socialist ethic—one that seeks justice without restraining liberty, one that imposes responsibilities on individuals but without abolishing individual freedom—will find itself most uncomfortable with problems posed by woman’s condition.6

… i am most interested in this statement about a true socialist ethic, which is far different that how movement conservatives paint the socialist ethic… i need more education on what socialism is…

Rationalist materialism tries in vain to ignore this powerful aspect of sexuality: sexual instinct cannot be regulated; according to Freud, it might even possess an inherent denial of its own satisfaction; what is certain is that it cannot be integrated into the social sphere, because there is in eroticism a revolt of the instant against time, of the individual against the universal: to try to channel and exploit it risks killing it, because live spontaneity cannot be disposed of like inert matter; nor can it be compelled in the way a freedom can be.7

… that eroticism is “a revolt of the instant against time, of the individual against the universal,” is a fascinating statement…

12-31-20

229.0 lbs

08:18 AM – Fishkill Creek

… the creek races by, i invert this in my mind to be the land rushing by the creek, it is an interesting experiment in relativity… the last day of the year, clouds, drizzle, mournful as is appropriate for the kind of year it has been…

04:49 AM – my studio

… the sound of rain splashing on concrete outside my window… thoughts about the HBO series We Are Who We Are, lesbian commander of forces at a US base in Italy… pain in my neck/shoulder, muscular, nerve, both?, not sure, persistent, seems to improve with neck roles, stretching, wondering if it is trackball related, switch to mouse today, repetitive stress relieved by changing the root activity, we’ll see…

… de Beauvoir… returning to where i was yesterday, de Beauvoir renders and accepts that the human female is physically weaker and more hampered by her hormones, her body, than the human male, and this is a clear disadvantage in the action upon the physical world system of order that has put males at the top of the hierarchy, the world that is intensely supported and enforced by the market capitalist system which is extraction, action upon, to create wealth, if we are now up against the limits of that, is there a field of play a game favorable to the circumstance, the condition of women, at hand?, as action upon the world relies less on brute strength and more on intellectual capability and cunning…

“weakness” is weakness only in light of the aims man sets for himself, the instruments at his disposal, and the laws he imposes. If he did not want to apprehend the world, the very idea of a grasp on things would have no meaning; when, in this apprehension, the full use of body force—above the usable minimum—is not required, the differences cancel each other out; where customs forbid violence, muscular energy cannot be the basis for domination: existential, economic, and moral reference points are necessary to define the notion of weakness concretely.8

… de Beauvoir argues that the structure and customs of society “cannot be deduced from biology;”9… the question that arises is what about customs related to coming of age and menstruation?, are these not driven by biological fact?, a need to deal socially with the fertility and primary directive of any species, which is, as i believe Bertrand Russel put it, to turn as much of the planet into itself as possible?”… in chapter 2, this passage is highlighted by other readers 421 times:

Nature does not define woman: it is she who defines herself by reclaiming nature for herself in her affectivity.10

… de Beauvoir compares psychoanalysis to religion, citing specifically Marxism and Christianity, which “displays an unsettling flexibility against a background of rigid concepts.”11, a fundamental characteristic of religion is its ability to shape shift around a core of brutally “rigid concepts”, that is, belief systems are fungible, and considering this, i wonder about the attempt to destabilize and make science fungible in the present moment, as belief struggles to maintain its primacy in the political discourse…

All psychoanalysts systematically refuse the idea of choice and its corollary, the notion of value; and herein lies the intrinsic weakness of the system.12

… and the mostly male field of neuroscience continues this stance, demonstrating through the experience of uniquely configured individuals (brains split in half to treat seizure disorders) that conscious mind, the “choosing” mind, has a secondary role, at best, in making choices, behavior is driven by pre conscious subroutines that react much more quickly than conscious thought can, consciousness relegated to removing obstructions to pre conscious motive fulfillment or the need to explain actions once undertaken, to self and the social group impacted… it is my own contention that society provides the context in which the individual might experience conscious control, for better or worse… and then the idea, no choice, no value… i am reading a passage in which de Beauvoir argues the psychoanalytic view of human sexuality and mind is insufficient and unable to explain the origins of something like shame, the example given being that of a young girl ashamed to urinate in a squatting position, exposing her bottom, and i remember a photograph, Emmet Gowan’s Edith Peeing In A Barn, the photographer’s wife, standing, legs apart, urinating on the floor in this context the photograph takes on a new meaning…

Sexuality must not be taken as an irreducible given; the existent possesses a more primary “quest for being”; sexuality is only one of these aspects.13

… quest for being…

Work, war, play, and art define ways of being in the world that cannot be reduced to any others; they bring to light features that impinge on those that sexuality reveals; it is both through them and through these erotic experiences that the individual chooses himself. But only an ontological point of view can restore the unity of this choice.14

12-30-20

229.2 lbs

04:27 AM – my studio

… today i make the mole, get ready for our Mexican New Year dinner, i, like so many people, am hoping that the new year is a good deal better than the passing one, it isn’t starting well, COVID-19 is rampant and 45’s administration continues to fail the people, vaccine distribution is off to a bad start, does not have enough money to keep it going… Washington, the Republicans, fiddle, while the rest of the nation burns… we watched the new David Copperfield movie last night, the most salient feature being its multicultural cast of actors, would have been all, or mostly white in the past… no alcohol again last night, though i did manage to fall asleep during a large swath of the Copperfield movie, and, i woke up naturally this morning, a little before 04:00 AM…

Simone De Beauvoir’s The Second Sex, this jumps out at me:

Maintaining means denying the dispersion of instants, thereby affirming continuity in the course of their outpouring; creating means exploding an irreducible and separate present within a temporal unity…15

… ie., maintaining is to resist entropy, the tendency of the universe to devolve into banal continuity, creating is to explode a novel presence within that continuity… is this the 50,000 foot view, or is it lower down?…

… female individuality is fought by the interest of the species; she seems possessed by outside forces: alienated.16

… i have thought, for a long time, that a great deal of species behavior is primal preprogramming, as consciousness rises, a tiny window of self awareness opens, which, in the context of a great number of individuals, becomes a window onto the possibility of denying ones possession by the interest of the species, and the construction of a society with roles that mostly accord with the reproductive interest of the species, but allows for a smaller number of non-normative roles, the function of these non-normative roles is to move species, in the form of society, forward into spaces, places, it has not gone before…

… it could be said that the male organism is immediately defined as male, whereas the female embryo is reluctant to accept its femaleness;17

… this strikes me as a projection of the author’s own need to express personal ambivalence to and reluctance to accept the prime directives of her body, her biography tells us she was a complete challenger of the normally accepted roles of the female, a free spirit in every sense of the word… she is precisely the sort of normative breaking member of her species that challenges and advances the socially imposed self perception and paves the way for the prime directives of biology to be overcome in society… de Beauvoir spends a great deal of time establishing that anatomy and the related prime directive of the sex, is the dominating force of both men and women’s lives, but that there is something inherent in women’s bodies that is more complicated for physiological and, one is to imply, psychological development, that the whole process of the body preparing itself for reproduction is one that weakens (her term) the woman’s constitution, makes it more vulnerable to physiological catastrophe, death… it is interesting that a woman philosopher grounds her assessment of the social condition of women in the physiological imperatives of the species and would seem to be painting herself into a corner of, thus it ever was and will be…

woman is her body as man is his, but her body is something other than her.18

… ie., the conscious self is encased in a physiological self that generally calls the shots, but isn’t this true for both man and woman?…

… contrary to an optimistic theory that is so obviously useful socially, gestation is tiring work that offers woman no benefit as an individual but that demands serious sacrifices. In the early months, it often brings with it appetite loss and vomiting that is not observed in any other domestic female and shows the body’s revolt against the species taking possession of it; the body loses phosphorus, calcium, and iron, the last of these losses being very hard to overcome later; the metabolic hyperactivity excites the endocrine system; the negative nervous system is in a heightened state of excitability; the specific weight of the blood decreases, and it is anemic, like “that of people who fast, who are starving, or who have been bled many times, and convalescents.”19

… i wonder what de Beauvoir is up to here?, she seems to promote a view of womanhood that renders them the weaker sex physiologically and psychologically, inferior to men in ability to act upon the material world, which cements the patriarchal dominance of action in that world… i don’t know if this is where she will head, but from my later and male vantage point, it is the system pursued in organizing society that accords these roles to women and men and as Kate Soper argues in Post Growth Hedonism, that (market, capitalist) system is due to break down or essentially end the species… Soper’s argument for what takes its place (if the species is not to end) will be much more integrative and friendly to blurring of gender lines…

Many of these characteristics are due to woman’s subordination to the species. This is the most striking conclusion of this study: she is the most deeply alienated of all the female mammals, and she is the one that refuses this alienation the most violently; in no other is the subordination of the organism to the reproductive function more imperious nor accepted with greater difficulty.20

… so, de Beauvoir develops a narrative of woman as cursed by her role in species continuation, a curse she reluctantly accepts…

Because the body is the instrument of our hold on the world, the world appears different to us depending on how it is grasped, which explains why we have studied these data so deeply; they are one of the keys that enable us to understand woman. But we refuse the idea that they form a fixed destiny for her. They do not suffice to constitute the basis for a sexual hierarchy; they do not explain why woman is the Other; they do not condemn her forever to this subjugated role.21

… and so de Beauvoir lays out her thesis, that despite the role physiology to gives her, despite the constraints it places on her, it is not an excuse for confining her to a subjugate role… my own view is that men and women have tightly prescribed physiological roles to play, and that we have developed an economic and social order system that is built on those physiological differences in such a way that it sets them in opposition, not yin-yang relationship, which means one will subjugate the other, we are passing through a watershed moment in which there is a gigantic struggle to change this, the outcome is uncertain…

12-29-20

229.8 lbs

04:46 AM – my studio

… no alcohol last night, not hard to do… as i continue my readings in Post Growth Hedonism, i see the present political moment in the US for what it is, the fossil-fueled-white-patriarchy trying any and everything to maintain control, including tearing democracy down in favor of oligarchy as a means to keep running the show, Biden/Harris will slow down the effort, but the eventual outcome is far from clear, it is the Democrats, though, who must prevail and must preside over the transition to a more sustainable future…

First, as repeatedly noted, no ecological salvation can take place without a simultaneous commitment to reducing and eventually eliminating the huge social-economic inequalities in affluent societies.22

Second, it is equally clear that capitalism is ultimately – and in the not very long term – incompatible with sustainability.23

Third, it is obvious (and follows from the two previous points) that the State – at local, regional, national and European levels – will have to lead and manage much of this change.24

… Soper argues that the likely push for economic system transformation will come from the left, but she does not envisage a “proletariat revolution,” which the right so deeply fears… Soper argues for redistribution of wealth through the increase of taxes on the wealthy and the wealthy lifestyle…

The emphasis on employment has led to unprecedented self-commodification, and educational curricula have been closely tailored to careers. Yet for some time, the sense of work as offering the main route to personal dignity and self-realisation has been waning. People are coming to view paid work, even if they avoid the endemic insecurity of the gig economy, as frustrating rather than enhancing self-expression and individual fulfillment.25

… Joe Biden argues that a person’s dignity is found and maintained through their job… this is old school, though probably a needed foot in the old world as the new world is coaxed into being… i struggle with the idea that my production must mean something monetarily, have been thinking about how to simply produce for the joy of production and how to make that production something that is of benefit in the building of reciprocal relationships… i want to be an artist, pursue making art, but i don’t wish to continue to participate in a system that values false scarcity and elitism… i have finished PGH, agree with many of its principles, if not the idea that a new hedonism can emerge, it’s semantics to make a program of less material affluence palatable… i wonder about my own commitment to the iPhone as camera of choice, as something that is less impactful on environment than a separate camera system, and on ebooks for my library, recognizing i don’t have the space for all the books i might want to read, why don’t i rely on the public library instead?, perhaps even for ebooks… this from an article in Emergence Magazine:

…I find the only way to return, to embrace reality, is through what is most simple, most ordinary. By baking bread and cooking soup, by smelling herbs, by gardening, or walking and watching in nature, reconnecting to wild places. By noticing what is around me, the sound of the wind, the rain falling.26

… i finish the article, post a link to Facebook, and realize that it is in harmony with the idea of Post Growth Hedonism, the simple pleasures, they have been there all along…

12-28-20

232.6 lbs

04:52 AM – my studio

… the bouncing back and forth of my weight is concerning, that i am above 230 is concerning, must reverse that trend, full tilt keto this week… very low on the carbs, which is difficult because H is satisfying her crafting needs with bread baking…

‘There can be no more talk of a linear and inexorable progress that used to silence those who challenged the market-based, industrial and consumerist order by accusing them of seeking to return us to a bygone age; from now on, the future of the Earth and all its creatures is at stake. And this uncertain becoming, strewn with tipping points, scarcely resembles the radiant future promised by the ideologists’ progress of the last two centuries, whether liberal, social democratic or Marxist’

Christophe Bonneuil and Jean-Baptiste Fressoz,

The Shock of the Anthropocene27

… as i continue to read in Post Growth Living, i think to myself that i agree with so much that is being said, but remain pessimistic that the appropriate changes can come through a shift in attitude and politics, the neo-liberal, global capitalist market is a latter day Goliath in its power and it rapidly co-opts opposing ideology into the folds of its skin before that ideology can change it substantially… the idea of a spiritual consumer, meaning that the consumer of a post growth society consumes in ways that are fully satisfying, one of the examples given in the book being to sit down with family and or friends for a shared meal, not fast food, slow food with men, women and children enjoying one another, laughing, living, loving…

‘Third Wave’ feminism and ‘girl power’ have themselves provided the springboard for all sorts of consumer-oriented media interventions, brand development and advertising spin.28

… this is but one example of how the market capitalist system manages to co-opt any kind of struggle to break free of its grip…

Avant-garde nostalgia could here make a contribution by reflecting on past experience in ways that highlight and continue to endorse humanist conceptions of well-being and personal emancipation, while also exposing the ways in which a growth-driven consumerist programme for realising well-being may now be actively subverting it.29

… the above strikes me as trying to have your cake and eat it too… i realize too, that the phrase “alternative hedonism bothers me, it smacks of cake and eat it too, though when i look up the complete definition of hedonism i find it encompasses a reality, which is that human beings are very instinct driven and that they instinctively move towards pleasure, real or perceived, and away from pain, real or imagined… i have just ordered the duck for New Years eve Duck in Mole sauce… yum… i encounter a new source of hope that dovetails with Post Growth Hedonism, presenting the alternative way to think of things that PGH points to, it is Emergence Magazine, a podcast by Robin Wall Kimmerer catches my attention… i will listen later today…

12-27-20

228.6 lbs

05:22 AM – my studio

… HCR tells me 45 is possibly going to pocket veto the appropriations bill congress has passed, which fits with the maximum chaos we expect from him, the man is indescribably foul as a human being, a petulant child, any supporter should be ashamed of themselves, and yet, too many of them are not… and this from Post Growth Living:

Success in the rat-race as in athletics is about arriving first, and the faster one achieves this, the more it is acclaimed.30

… as i read that, i think of the annoying fascination people and the media have with prodigies, the totally exceptional talent capable at a very early age, this is not a model for the success of civilization…

In 2018, four billion people around the world spent on average six hours a day online (a total of one billion years). In the UK, those aged between fifteen and twenty-four check their phones every six to eight minutes. Two in five adults first look at their phone within five minutes of waking up. For those aged under thirty-five, the figure is 65 per cent. Similarly, more than a third of adults (60 per cent of those under thirty-five) check their phones five minutes before lights out. More than two-thirds say they never turn their smartphone off, and 78 per cent say they could not live without it.31

… and here i start my list of New Years intentions:

i intend not to look at my phone for at least an hour when i get up in the morning, and i will stop looking at it an hour before going to bed…

i intend to disengage from attempting to win photo admiration on social media and post more for honest exchange with people i know…

i intend to get H and the dogs out for more walks…

i intend to eat a more plant based diet…

… as i read further in Post Growth Living, Kate Soper paints a picture of the ways we vacation, the destructiveness of it, and the ways we could vacation… which would be closer to home, and still provide a different world of experience… it is a nostalgic idea, a winding back of the clock, because the present mode of existence is unsustainable…

The growth of consumer culture has been heavily reliant on the individualisation of consumption, due in part to the promotion of socially divisive status buying and the creation of personalised and privatised living arrangements.32

… yesterday H talked with her family and offered a diagnosis of the individualism and selfishness as due to the lack of a common quality public education, i share her belief in this as partial cause, but i have read in more than one place, Kate Soper now included, that this individuation is driven by the consumer culture created by the market-capitalist system of generating wealth… it is not surprising that this atomization is reinforced by news and information programming and now by social media, which is driven by its ability to supply advertisers with ever more specifically targeted access to customers… the atomization is an intentional product of the whole system and unfolds to the detriment of society, which we are experiencing in the most profound way in the US… Fox News would not exist if atomization and individuation not the point, nor would the separate more liberal information outlets exist… i have returned to the habit of reading a book when i first get up, and it rushes back how rewarding this habit is… i fell out of it at the beginning of the pandemic because i simply could not concentrate sufficiently until recently…

  1. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex (p. 71). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
  2. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex (p. 73). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
  3. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex (p. 74). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
  4. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex (p. 74). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
  5. Melville, Herman, Moby Dick
  6. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex (p. 67). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
  7. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex (p. 67). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
  8. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex (p. 46). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
  9. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex (p. 47). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
  10. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex (p. 49). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
  11. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex (p. 49). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
  12. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex (p. 55). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
  13. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex (p. 55). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
  14. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex (p. 56). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
  15. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex (p. 38). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
  16. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex (p. 38). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
  17. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex (pp. 38-39). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
  18. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex (pp. 41-42). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
  19. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex (p. 42). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
  20. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex (p. 44). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
  21. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex (p. 44). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
  22. Soper, Kate. Post-Growth Living (p. 170). Verso Books. Kindle Edition.
  23. Soper, Kate. Post-Growth Living (p. 170). Verso Books. Kindle Edition.
  24. Soper, Kate. Post-Growth Living (p. 171). Verso Books. Kindle Edition.
  25. Soper, Kate. Post-Growth Living (p. 179). Verso Books. Kindle Edition.
  26. Vaughan-Lee, Llewellyn, A Ghost’s Life, Emergence Magazine
  27. Soper, Kate. Post-Growth Living (p. 137). Verso Books. Kindle Edition.
  28. Soper, Kate. Post-Growth Living (pp. 150-151). Verso Books. Kindle Edition.
  29. Soper, Kate. Post-Growth Living (p. 156). Verso Books. Kindle Edition.
  30. Soper, Kate. Post-Growth Living (p. 110). Verso Books. Kindle Edition.
  31. Soper, Kate. Post-Growth Living (pp. 110-111). Verso Books. Kindle Edition.
  32. Soper, Kate. Post-Growth Living (p. 123). Verso Books. Kindle Edition.

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